Part 1: Exploring violence against women
1. Explaining violence against women as a development concern Defining violence against women; The causes and the perpetrators; Poverty and violence against women: exporing the link; Some useful concepts from gender and development; Supporting women's empowerment and avoiding violent backlash; Summary and implications for development organisations
2. Human rights and development responses to violence against women Human rights approaches to violence against women; An integrated response: human rights and development; Summary and implications for development organisations
3. The prevalence, forms, and impacts of violence against women Problems in estimating the prevalence of violence against women; Forms of violence against women; The impact of violence upon women; Summary and implications for development organisations
4. The contexts in which violence against women occurs Violence and social institutions; Violence against women in times of change and crisis; Summary and implications for development organisations
Part 2: Strategies for challenging violence against women
5. Direct support to the survivors of violence What are the options available to women?; Creating a safe space; Supporting women's access to law and justice; Supporting women to overcome the mental and physical impacts of violence; Long-tern strategies: creating a livelihood; The right to individual petition under the Women's Convention; Planning support interventions for women survivors of violence; Summary and implications for development organisations
6. Challenges to violent men Why work with male perpetrators?; Direct challenges to violent men; Ending violence through fostering women's empowerment; 'Healing the abuser;: working with male perpetrators; Summary and implications for development organisations
7. Challenging attitudes and beliefs Raising awareness and ending stigma; Challenging attitudes by recording violence against women; Challenging attitudes by harnessing the media; Challenging attitudes through public education and information campaigns; Group work to build 'critical consciousness' of violence against women; Summart and implications for development organisations
8. Challenging the State Strengthening legal responses to violence against women; Building the capacity of state workers to challenge violence; Achieving attitudinal change at the level of the State; Strengthening state provision of health and welfare; Lobbying for state provision of shelters; Transforming state-instigated research; Training of state officials; State involvement in education campaigns; NGO lobbying of governments to effect change; Summary and implications for development organisations
9. Conclusion: planning for freedom from violence A rights-based approach to development; Strategies for tackling violence against women; Indentifying trends; Policy implications for international NGOs; Ending violence against women?
Appendix 1 The three phases of Rape Trauma Syndrome
Appendix 2 The KwaZulu Natal programme for the Survivors of Violence framework for understanding the effects of political violence and responding to it
Francine Pickup worked for several years as a researcher in Oxfam's Policy Department . She has also worked for Amnesty International.
Suzanne Williams is an independent Social Development Consultant with Goukamma Consulting, having worked for Oxfam GB from 1977 to 2004. She was one of Oxfam's pioneers of work on gender equality and violence against women, and authored and co-authored several key publications and articles for Oxfam GB on these issues.
Caroline Sweetman is Editor of the international journal Gender & Development and works for Oxfam GB.