|1. Starting research: some basic issues;|
|* Identifying a research need;|
|* The level of participation;|
|* Expectations aroused by research;|
|* Constraints on conducting research;|
|* Government attitudes;|
|* Conflicts and emergencies;|
|* Cultural factors: gender relations and power structures;|
|2. Strategic issues in planning and sound research;|
|* The unit of analysis;|
|* Questions of time;|
|* The research timetable;|
|* Continuous research or a snapshot?;|
|* Objectivity; subjectivity and the control of bias;|
|* Representative results;|
|* Some pitfalls to be avoided;|
|* Choosing the researchers;|
|* Local participation and experts;|
|* Training the field team;|
|* Styles of research;|
|3. The range of research methods;|
|* Making the most of existing resources;|
|* Asking questions and interviewing;|
|* Group interviews;|
|* Oral testimonies oral histories and life-histories;|
|* The pros and cons of a survey;|
|* Participant observation;|
|* Rapid rural appraisal;|
|* The variety of RRA techniques;|
|* Collating and presenting RRA findings;|
|* Limitations of RRA;|
|* An example of RRA;|
|* Participatory Rural Appraisal;|
|4. General issues affecting most research methods;|
|* The use of appropriate indicators;|
|* After research: some crucial questions;|
|* Appendix 1 Checking for questions;|
|* Appendix 2 Questionnaire design;|
|* Appendix 3 Some high-tech; high cost research methods;|
|* Appendix 4 Logical Framework Analysis;|
|* Appendix 5 Women and evaluation;|
|* Appendix 6 Action Research Programme: the methods and approach;|
Brian Pratt is one of the founding members of INTRAC and is the Executive Director. He has worked in many countries as a consultant and researcher for NGOs, and multi- and bilateral agencies. The primary focus of his publications and consultancies is on strategic policy issues for NGOs and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E).
Peter Loizos is a Visiting Research Fellow in the Crisis States Programme, Development Studies Institute, LSE, and Professor of Sociology in Intercollege, Nicosia.
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