Effect of cassava grits as maize replacement on carcass characteristics of two strains of broiler chickens
Carcass characteristics are measures of relative proportions of meat and bone, among others, of an animal’s carcass and dictate the acceptability by processors and consumers. Carcass characteristics of two strains of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of cassava grits (CG) were determined using 120 (four-week-old) broiler chickens for each of Arbor Acre Plus (AAP) and Marshall (MS) Strains. The birds were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments of CG as replacement for maize (0, 20, 40, and 60 per cent) at finisher phase. Each treatment had three replicates. At the end of the feeding trial which lasted 28 days, four birds with weights close to the group average were selected per replicate, fasted for 24 hours, weighed, and sacrificed for carcass analysis. Data were collected on carcass characteristics and cut parts and analysed using ANOVA. Results showed that strain had no significant (p > 0.05) influence on carcass characteristics and cut parts parameters except (p < 0.05) relative plucked weight. Broilers fed 0 per cent CG inclusion recorded highest (p < 0.05) live weight (2103.75 g). CG levels had no significant (p > 0.05) influence on dressed weight and choice cuts (breast, thigh, and drumstick) of chickens. The study concluded that CG could be used to replace up to 60 per cent of maize in finishing diets for broiler chickens without negative effects on dressed weight and choice cuts.
Performance and economic benefits of meat-type chicken fed diets containing white and yellow cassava supplemented with different additives
Two hundred and forty unsexed day-old broiler chickens were allotted to eight dietary treatments arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of two cassava varieties (white and yellow cassava) supplemented with no additive (control), synthetic amino acid, cellulase enzyme and a combination of amino acid and cellulase enzyme for the starter (0–4 weeks) and finisher (4–8 weeks) phases. Data was collected on growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cost of feed consumed per kilogram and analysed using ANOVA. Starting broilers fed a diet containing yellow cassava supplemented with amino acids had the most superior (p < 0.05) final weight (709.09 g/bird), weight gain (657.27 g/bird), best FCR (1.93), and the cheapest (p < 0.05) cost per kilogram weight gain (₦200.15/kg [US$0.56]). Finishing broilers fed a diet containing white cassava supplemented with amino acid also recorded the best (p < 0.05) FCR (2.43) and cheapest cost of feed consumed per kilogram weight gain (₦226.71/kg [$0.63]). The study concluded that dietary supplementation with amino acid when white or yellow cassava root is to be used in the nutrition of broilers is essential for improved growth performance and economic benefits to broiler farmers.
Effect of variety, age at maturity, and drying method on physicochemical properties of high quality cassava flour (HQCF)
High quality cassava flour (HQCF) is one of the products derivable from cassava roots. Drying in HQCF production is a complex operation which changes the quality of a product physically and chemically. Thus, it is important to investigate some quality attributes of high quality cassava flour obtained from solar and flash drying methods and compare these with the acceptable standard values. Two improved cassava varieties (TMS98/0510 and TMS98/0505) were planted and harvested at different developmental stages of 7, 9 and 12 months after planting. The roots were processed into HQCF within 24 h of harvest using mechanized and solar dryers. The physicochemical properties: moisture, crude fibre, carbohydrate, pH, and cyanide contents of the flour samples were determined using standard laboratory procedures. Effect of variety, age at harvest, and drying method as well as their interactive effects were then statistically assessed on these properties. There was a significant difference in pH and cyanide contents of HQCF samples from the two cassava varieties. With respect to the carbohydrate and moisture contents, the variety, age, and drying method interaction had no significant (p > 0.05) effect while interaction significantly affected the pH, cyanide, and crude fibre contents. However, the values obtained in all the HQCF samples were within acceptable limits.
Postharvest processing of cassava requires peeling as a unit operation, and it has been well documented that peeling is a major challenge of cassava processing. This study presents a recently developed cassava peeling machine made from locally available engineering materials. The machine has a capacity of 8 tonnes/day with the dual role of peeling and recycling of fruit water used in the peeling process for washing/mild pretreatment. The peeling machine utilizes an abrasive peeling surface inscribed with indented 1.2 mm stainless steel of 770 mm height with 2,450 mm diameter, a concrete based cavity, fruit water recovery tank, water pump, and the transmission system. The configuration resulted in careful removal of the tuber peels achieving > 90 per cent flesh recovery at an average rotational speed of 1,600 rpm < Nt <2,600 rpm. The average peeling efficiency of the machine was 58.6–85.75 per cent depending on the maturity, age, and variety of cassava. The cost of a single unit in Nigeria was estimated at US$1,230.
Gender analysis of households’ decision-making to reduce post-harvest losses of cassava in Ghana, Nigeria, and Vietnam
This study analysed gender dimensions of decision-making at the household level in cassava enterprise in Ghana, Nigeria, and Vietnam in the context of risks and benefits to food security to ensure value addition to reduce post-harvest losses from cassava. Rapid participatory rural appraisal was used to select a total of 501 households in the countries chosen for this study. Focus and group discussions (F and GD) and semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Data were analysed descriptively. Twenty cassava-based activities linked to gender activities in cassava processing households in the selected countries were identified. In all three countries, final decisions to allocate and use resources were taken by men – although women are commonly responsible for post-harvest management. Ownership of production and processing assets is positively skewed to men across the sample with women having rights of use only. Household decision-making objectives for generating peels and attitudes towards cassava peels vary by country and by lineage/descent, largely influenced by culture, level of education, religion, formal employment opportunities, and income levels. Household cassava peels utilization has low value and is therefore not a focus of male interest in Ghana and Nigeria but if value is added, this dynamic may change. This was different in Vietnam where peels are processed generationally for additional household income. This study proposes the design of empowerment/development strategies such as group dynamics and skill acquisition to increase women’s bargaining and decision-making capacities and reduce male/elite capture of interventions.