The aim of this review is to assess the literature (published and grey) on capital and recurrent costs of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Schools (WinS) facilities and services. The review presents life-cycle costs (e.g. consumables, repair, support, and maintenance) of WinS services and assesses the practical costing exercises and tools currently available for WinS. Furthermore, this review characterizes the typical costs and financial sources for WASH services in (primary) schools and explores the different financial mechanisms available to meet school-level WASH financing gaps.
Behaviour-centred design can be used to trigger changes in sanitation and hygiene practices. SNV Netherlands Development Organization used behaviour-centred design in an intervention to address the motivators of washing hands with soap in its Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene For All (SSH4A) programme. This paper describes the use of emotional demonstrations (emo-demos) for triggering handwashing behaviour changes. The targets were the caregivers of children. Emo-demos focused on the motives of nurture (desire to care for one’s offspring) and disgust (a feeling of revulsion to avoid disease vectors and contamination). The paper provides practical information for implementing a small-scale handwashing promotion emo-demo within a WASH programme intervention. It concludes with lessons learned for wider practice.