Use and adoption of mechanization in cassava farming has the potential to increase yield if combined well with good agronomic practices. Promotion of machines in Nigeria has been occurring since the early 1990s, however uptake remains a challenge. This research was aimed at determining the factors that affect cassava yield as well as extent of use of mechanization in cassava production. Both primary and secondary data on cassava mechanization in Nigeria was used. The research focused on beneficiaries of the Cassava Mechanization and Agro-processing Project (CAMAP) led by the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) which promotes full mechanization for cassava production; i.e. ploughing, harrowing, planting, spraying, and harvesting. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Multiple regression was used to determine the factors affecting cassava yield. The results showed a significant and positive influence of mechanization and good agronomic practices on the cassava yield. Project beneficiaries who used machines reported yields of 23–33 tonnes/hectare with non-beneficiaries reporting 4–11 tonnes/hectare. This translated into an income increase for farmers using machines for cassava production. This research recommends promotion of mechanization in Nigeria to enhance cassava production.