Brazil leads one of the most successful incubation movements in Latin America, through innovation and adaptation of incubator models to suit indigenous needs. The government has clearly made incubators a policy priority as witnessed by the various initiatives to support incubators and incubatees. Even though business incubation has not gained widespread currency, multiple levels of government and a coalition of partners from various spheres appear to be involved in supporting incubators. Business incubation in Brazil is very much a bottom-up effort with universities playing a key role, unlike Chile where the government has played a relatively top-down role in fostering business incubation. Compared to China, the emphasis in Brazil appears to be more on the softer services such as networking relative to the provision of physical space and hard infrastructure. This article discusses the business incubation landscape in Brazil drawing comparisons with China and Chile, along with policy implications.
Business incubators in China were deployed by the Chinese Government solely as a critical instrument to develop and industrialize its technological advancements and are only open to technology-based ventures. This article reviews the development of Chinese business incubators over the past two decades, addressing such key issues as the Chinese business incubators’ founding and funding, service offerings and tenant selection criteria, and discusses the future development of the technology business incubation industry in China. The role and funding by government is very important, though recent efforts are being made to diversify ownership and funding. Incubator specialisms, relating to the industrial areas they are located, are increasing. Selection criteria, based on technology focus, commercial potential and management team, are seen as important. It appears that business incubators in China have been a booster for the transformation of the Chinese economy from the ‘Made in China’ model to a new ‘Created in China’ model.