What is the impact of fair trade on producers? This article describes the case of an organic rice project in Thailand, in which organic farmers, conventional farmers and those who used to farm organically were interviewed. How farmers' input costs, their yields and their gross margins were affected by farming organically, and by being 'in transition' is examined. It appears that once full organic status is achieved, and when a premium is applied, organic farming through a fair trade organization can be very profitable compared to conventional farming; however,many poorer farmers cannot afford the transition period. Other benefits include improved health and the social advantages of belonging to a farmers'network.