Township enterprises (TEs) in China are undergoing rapid change. With drastic and sustained reduction in the incidence of poverty, the priority of TEs is shifting from income and employment generation for the poor to product-quality improvement and cost reduction. TEs in some strategic industries such as automobiles and electronics, are to be recast by national industrial policy to function as group members with large enterprises as their nuclei in order to build competitive strength with an increasing focus on world markets. This article seeks to present an overview of the growth of the TE sector and its place in China's industrial policy.
In spite of the reluctance of municipal authorities to recognize them, microenterprises continue to increase in number in urban areas. Trading entrepreneurs in Hyderabad, South India, value the availability of lockup storage space near the market to safeguard their stock at the end of the day. Such stores mean that traders do not have to commute home with their stock every day; they provide a number of other advantages as well, such as toilet facilities and a place to rest. Renting arrangements for such stores are not formalized, however, and there are insufficient lockup stores available. This article describes how the municipal authorities' attempts to provide small shops have become uneconomic, and calls for recognition from the authorities of the storage needs of microentrepreneurs.