This paper aims to assist practitioners and researchers in planning, identifying, and documenting gender outcomes associated with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programmes by proposing a conceptual framework for classifying gender equality changes. Gender outcomes that have been attributed to WASH initiatives encompass those directly related to improved services as well as outcomes that move into areas of relationships, power, and status. There is a growing body of literature identifying WASH-related gender outcomes; however the types of outcomes described vary considerably and further work is needed to inform a comprehensive picture of WASH and gender links. The framework proposed in this paper is based on a synthesis of outcomes reported in WASH literature to date, empirical research in Fiji and Vanuatu, and insights from gender and development literature. It is hoped that the framework will support practitioners to engage with the inherent complexity of gender inquiry, contributing to sector knowledge about the potential for WASH initiatives to advance gender equality.