Measuring progress towards sanitation and hygiene targets: a critical review of monitoring methodologies and technologies
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target for access to safe sanitation and hygiene represents a marked improvement over the target used during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period. The SDG target attempts to: explicitly address hygiene; eliminate inequalities within populations; evaluate sanitation services beyond the household; account for the accessibility, safety, acceptability, and affordability of service delivery; and improve the sustainability of services (WHO/UNICEF, 2015). However, the proposed indicators for monitoring progress in sanitation and hygiene still rely primarily on infrequent household surveys and census data. This paper provides a critical review of the sanitation and hygiene target and explores the potential gaps between the expanded understanding of access, the proposed monitoring strategies, and the desired impacts. A variety of innovative methodologies and technologies are reviewed, with specific attention given to their suitability for measuring and monitoring progress towards the sanitation and hygiene target.