Impact of SPS standards on agri-food trade: A case study of the invasive fruit fly (Bactrocera invadens) in Kenya
Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures have become increasingly important for trade in agricultural and food products, and may particularly affect developing countries' ability to access higher value markets. This article presents a case study of trade-related problems caused by the invasive fruit fly (Bactrocera invadens) in Kenya, which led to a ban of avocado exports to South Africa. The ban had substantial economic, social, environmental, and institutional consequences for the agricultural sector in Kenya, which (as in many developing countries) provides a livelihood and source of income for thousands of smallholder producers. The Kenyan public and private sectors are now in the process of introducing a variety of technical and institutional measures to resolve the problem and to reduce SPS risks for the agri-food sector. The case study is illustrative of the importance of a supportive infrastructure to implement SPS control measures and to ensure continued international trade in agri-food products.