Low-cost unconventional sewerage
Water and sanitation in camps on the Andaman Islands
When the Asian tsunami struck the Andaman Islands, nearly 7000 people were relocated in six camps. In spite of the large number of bathing and sanitation facilities built, water and sanitation conditions remained unsatisfactory in four of the camps. The facilities had been constructed without consulting their users.
Domestic water supply options in Gezira irrigation scheme
The Gezira irrigation scheme in Sudan is one of the largest in Africa and contains over 1,200 unregistered and illegal villages that are home to immigrant agricultural workers. The majority have no source of clean domestic water supply, frequently relying on nearby irrigation water for all their needs. Over 50 per cent of the population are infected with schistosomiasis and other water-borne diseases. This paper examines the problems in one such village, Taweel, and suggests options for improving the supply. After discussing the physical and institutional environment governing water supply, the paper reviews the status of other water supply schemes in the area. It shows that many are in a poor condition because of lack of funding, insufficient staff and poor consideration of operation and maintenance. A review of possible water supply options suggests three possible solutions: a pipeline from a borehole in a nearby village; simple treatment of the irrigation water flowing through the village; and the construction of an infiltration gallery in a nearby main irrigation canal. The paper concludes that there is insufficient information available to make a final decision on the best option but the proposals can form the foundation for further data collection and stakeholder consultation.
Manual welding of water pipes
Polyethylene pipe is a low-cost, reliable, and durable material widely used in the water industry around the world. In low-income countries one of the problems with its use is the high cost of fittings. This is a particular problem for small communities who are responsible for the maintenance of their own water supplies. It can be a serious barrier to sustainability. One solution is to replace fittings with hand butt fusion: a simple technique for welding pipes together. The technique was widely used in Nepal but has latterly fallen out of favour. This is a pity since it could still have wide application around the world. This paper describes in detail the manual butt welding technique and demonstrates that the joint is at least as strong as that produced by mechanical joints.