Key advantages of a Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) toilet over alternative low-cost sanitation facilities are its ability to dispel odours and to minimize fly populations. To assess these purported benefits in a field setting, thirty toilets in six Upper West Region communities were monitored from September through November of 2007, modeled, and then compared to the World Bank/UNDP Technical Advisory Group specifications. The evidence suggests that the requirements for achieving beneficial performance are often ignored; hence VIP toilets are not the best sanitation facility for this region. This article details VIP ventilation and fly control mechanisms identified in the 2007 study and assesses their effectiveness; in practice, both fail to meet design specifications
Going beyond mason training: enabling, facilitating, and engaging rural sanitation markets for the base of the pyramid
This paper summarizes the findings from a meta-analysis of 22 rural sanitation supply studies commissioned by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World Bank over the past seven years in South America, sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, and South Asia. By building a comprehensive analytical framework for the sanitation market, the article identifies globally relevant weaknesses in the sanitation market, gives examples of positive interventions, and identifies key areas of activities that could lead to a strengthening of a relevant sanitation market for the base of the pyramid (BoP). The study also identified global knowledge gaps on how to enable, facilitate, and engage rural sanitation markets for the BoP. The full report is expected to be published by WSP later in 2015.