Supporting Rural Water Supply
Moving towards a Service Delivery Approach
Collectively, billions of dollars have been invested in the provision of rural water supply systems in developing countries over the past three decades. Although progress is being made and rates of coverage are increasing, users often find that, once installed, water supply systems are poorly maintained and eventually break down, leaving them with an unreliable and disrupted water supply. Supporting Rural Water Supply takes a critical look and asks why we have been unable to provide a sustainable water service to rural people for so long? What are the critical success factors in the areas where there has been good progress? How can we support the adoption of a service delivery approach to rural water supply – one that moves beyond implementing infrastructure projects to delivering a reliable and indefinite service? This book brings together findings from 13 country studies which were carried out as part of a global learning initiative – Sustainable Services at Scale, or Triple-S. It offers insights into ways countries and individual organisations can move towards a service delivery approach step by step. Published in association with IRC.
|Prelims (Figures, Tables, Boxes, Acknowledgments)|
|2. Methodology and conceptual framework|
|3. Country sketches|
|4. Findings from the country studies|
|5. Conclusions and recommendations|
|Back Matter (Annexes)|
Harold Lockwood is the director of the UK consulting firm Aguaconsult, and is an expert in water supply and sanitation with over twenty years of international experience.
Stef Smits is Senior Programme Officer, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Netherlands.
Predictors of Sustainability for Community-Managed Handpumps in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 47 (2013), Iss. 21 P.12037https://doi.org/10.1021/es402086n [Citations: 131]
A Sustainability Planning Framework and Methods for Rural Drinking Water in Satara District, Maharashtra, India
Wescoat, James L.
Murty, Jonnalagadda V. R.
Frontiers in Water, Vol. 4 (2022), Iss.https://doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2022.804845 [Citations: 0]
The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies
Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 26 (2018), Iss. 2 P.367https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-017-1711-0 [Citations: 19]
Performance Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Piped Water Supply Infrastructure in Developing Communities
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 148 (2022), Iss. 2https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0001470 [Citations: 0]
Drinking Water Security in Rural India
Rural Domestic Water Supply in India: Progress and Issues
Dinesh Kumar, M.
2022https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-9198-0_1 [Citations: 0]
Sustainability evaluation of a primary school rainwater demonstration project in Tanzania
Mwamila, Tulinave Burton
Han, Moo Young
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol. 6 (2016), Iss. 3 P.447https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2016.186 [Citations: 5]
Sustainability of rural water services in rural Sub-Saharan Africa environments: developing a Water Service Sustainability Index
Mvongo, Victor Dang
Sustainable Water Resources Management, Vol. 7 (2021), Iss. 3https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-021-00526-8 [Citations: 2]
Engineering for Sustainable Human Development
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services for Development
2014https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413531.ch15 [Citations: 0]
Towards sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene technology use in sub-Saharan Africa: the Learning Alliance approach
Asimah, S. A.
Sekuma, S. P.
Coulibaly, Y. N.
Parker, A. H.
Water Policy, Vol. 19 (2017), Iss. 1 P.69https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2016.252 [Citations: 1]
Conditions for Successful Community-based Water Management: Perspectives from Rural Uganda
International Journal of Rural Management, Vol. 14 (2018), Iss. 2 P.110https://doi.org/10.1177/0973005218793245 [Citations: 7]
Is Community Management an Efficient and Effective Model of Public Service Delivery? Lessons from the Rural Water Supply Sector in Malawi
Public Administration and Development, Vol. 35 (2015), Iss. 4 P.263https://doi.org/10.1002/pad.1737 [Citations: 59]
Portrait of a successful small-town water service provider in Nepal's changing landscape
Water Policy, Vol. 20 (2018), Iss. S1 P.84https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2018.006 [Citations: 4]
A systematic review of success factors in the community management of rural water supplies over the past 30 years
Chan, Mei Yee
Water Policy, Vol. 17 (2015), Iss. 5 P.963https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2015.128 [Citations: 65]
Internet of Things innovation in rural water supply in sub-Saharan Africa: a critical assessment of emerging ICT
Memon, Fayyaz Ali
Waterlines, Vol. 38 (2019), Iss. 2 P.71https://doi.org/10.3362/1756-3488.18-00028 [Citations: 5]
An investigation of private operator models for the management of rural water supply in sub-Saharan Africa
van der Byl, William
Carter, Richard C.
Waterlines, Vol. 37 (2018), Iss. 2 P.155https://doi.org/10.3362/1756-3488.18-00005 [Citations: 1]
Comparison of methods to estimate water access: a pilot study of a GPS-based approach in low resource settings
Pearson, Amber L.
International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 15 (2016), Iss. 1https://doi.org/10.1186/s12942-016-0062-8 [Citations: 11]
Is community water management the community’s choice? Implications for water and development policy in Africa
Water Policy, Vol. 17 (2015), Iss. 4 P.664https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2014.170 [Citations: 41]
Governance Drivers of Rural Water Sustainability: Collaboration in Frontline Service Delivery
2021https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-9798 [Citations: 0]
Addressing the impossible triad – high inequality, decentralized policy and low local capacity – challenges for drinking water policy in Mexico
González Rivas, Marcela
(2022) P.1https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2022.2136627 [Citations: 0]
Barriers to handpump serviceability in Malawi: life-cycle costing for sustainable service delivery
Truslove, Jonathan P.
Coulson, Andrea B.
Kalin, Robert M.
Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6 (2020), Iss. 8 P.2138https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EW00283F [Citations: 2]
Challenges and opportunities with social inclusion and community‐based water management in Solomon Islands
Love, Mark William
Development Policy Review, Vol. 40 (2022), Iss. 4https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12597 [Citations: 0]
Determinants of rural hand-pump functionality through maintenance provision in the Central African Republic
Fink, Eliza Lynn
PLOS Water, Vol. 1 (2022), Iss. 6 P.e0000024https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pwat.0000024 [Citations: 0]
Sustainability of community-managed small town and rural water systems in northern Ghana: lessons from Upper West Region
Osumanu, Issaka Kanton
Zumayelleh, Emmanuel Ankamah
Kosoe, Enoch Akwasi
Community Development Journal, Vol. 57 (2022), Iss. 1 P.93https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsab015 [Citations: 2]
Technologies for Development
The Technology Applicability Framework. A Participatory Tool to Validate Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Technologies for Low-Income Urban Areas
2015https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16247-8_18 [Citations: 1]
Revisiting the history, concepts and typologies of community management for rural drinking water supply in India
James, A. J.
International Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 33 (2017), Iss. 1 P.152https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2016.1145576 [Citations: 23]
Why prepaid technologies are not a panacea for inclusive and sustainable rural water services in Tanzania?
Komakech, Hans C.
Water Policy, Vol. 22 (2020), Iss. 5 P.925https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2020.070 [Citations: 4]
Water Is Life
CHAPTER 4 - Leveraging community capacity to manage improved point-water facilities
2015https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780448893.004 [Citations: 2]
Turning tides: a systemic approach to intervention in the water sector
Enterprise Development and Microfinance, Vol. 27 (2016), Iss. 1 P.21https://doi.org/10.3362/1755-1986.2016.002 [Citations: 0]
Rethinking the sustainability of rural water delivery under the community ownership and management model
Kumasi, Tyhra Carolyn
Sustainable Water Resources Management, Vol. 8 (2022), Iss. 5https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-022-00751-9 [Citations: 0]
Factors Associated with Water Service Continuity for the Rural Populations of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Mozambique
DuChanois, Ryan M.
Liddle, Elisabeth S.
Fenner, Richard A.
Zaman, Rashid U.
Mujica-Pereira, Ana V.
Gribble, Matthew O.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 53 (2019), Iss. 8 P.4355https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07173 [Citations: 10]
Solving Rural Water Exclusion: Challenges and Limits to Co-Management in Costa Rica
Dobbin, Kristin Babson
Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 28 (2015), Iss. 4 P.388https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2014.948245 [Citations: 11]
Promoting equity in water access: the limits of fairness of a rural water programme in semi-arid Mozambique
Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 41 (2017), Iss. 3 P.131https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.12128 [Citations: 5]
Use of low bandwidth network technologies and sensors for operation and performance monitoring of rural development projects: A case study in South Africa
The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol. 87 (2021), Iss. 5https://doi.org/10.1002/isd2.12182 [Citations: 1]
A macrohistorical geography of rural drinking water institutions in India
Wescoat, James L.
Murty, J. V. R.
Water History, Vol. 13 (2021), Iss. 2 P.161https://doi.org/10.1007/s12685-021-00274-8 [Citations: 3]
A short history of how we think and talk about sanitation services and why it matters
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol. 6 (2016), Iss. 2 P.298https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2016.118 [Citations: 11]
Management of rural water services in Nicaragua: a systemic network approach to evaluating stakeholder alignment
Walters, Jeffrey P.
Javernick-Will, Amy N.
International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, Vol. 22 (2015), Iss. 4 P.358https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1053999 [Citations: 5]
Water Co-operation between Cultures: Partnerships with Indigenous Peoples for Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services
Grajales, M. Doughty
Aquatic Procedia, Vol. 2 (2014), Iss. P.55https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2014.07.009 [Citations: 4]
Advancements in and Integration of Water, Sanitation, and Solid Waste for Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Narayan, Abishek Sankara
Marks, Sara J.
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 46 (2021), Iss. 1 P.193https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-030620-042304 [Citations: 7]
From Infrastructure to Services
Setting the priorities
2015https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780448138.008 [Citations: 0]
Water for small-scale biogas digesters in sub-Saharan Africa
Smith, Jo U.
GCB Bioenergy, Vol. 9 (2017), Iss. 2 P.339https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12339 [Citations: 14]
Long-Term Functionality of Rural Water Services in Developing Countries: A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding the Dynamic Interaction of Factors
Walters, Jeffrey P.
Javernick-Will, Amy N.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49 (2015), Iss. 8 P.5035https://doi.org/10.1021/es505975h [Citations: 60]
A GIS-based aquifer vulnerability assessment in the basement complex terrain of southwestern Nigeria
Akinwumiju, A. S.
Olorunfemi, M. O.
Sustainable Water Resources Management, Vol. 4 (2018), Iss. 4 P.715https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-017-0157-9 [Citations: 3]
Inverse infrastructures: self-organization in the water services
Water Policy, Vol. 17 (2015), Iss. 2 P.299https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2014.095 [Citations: 3]
Institutional influences on local government support for professionalized maintenance of water supply infrastructure in rural Uganda: A qualitative analysis
PLOS Water, Vol. 1 (2022), Iss. 2 P.e0000003https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pwat.0000003 [Citations: 2]
Looking beyond headline indicators: water and sanitation services in small towns in Ethiopia
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol. 6 (2016), Iss. 3 P.435https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2016.034 [Citations: 22]
Improving the Reliability of Water Service Delivery in Rural Kenya through Professionalized Maintenance: A System Dynamics Perspective
Walters, Jeffrey P.
Linden, Karl G.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 56 (2022), Iss. 23 P.17364https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c00939 [Citations: 0]
From Infrastructure to Services
Transforming accountability and project monitoring for stronger national WASH sectors
2015https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780448138.004 [Citations: 2]