This paper assesses women’s agency and its influence on technology adoption in agriculture. In undertaking the study, data was sourced from CARE Pathways Programme 2013 Annual Review Studies in Tanzania and Malawi. The cohort technique was used to select a sample of 149 female respondents from both female- and male-headed households. Using a probit regression model, the study found a significant and positive relationship between high agency and knowledge on gender issues, positive perception of gender roles, and farm size. In contrast, access to a broad range of information sources and belonging to female-headed households enhance the likelihood of low agency. Using the OLS regression model, the study reveals a positive and significant relationship between women’s agency and adoption of production technologies. This implies that interventions to enhance adoption of agricultural technologies among rural women must aim at building their capabilities to take purposeful actions.