A two-year pilot project among refugees in Somalia was based on the traditional apprenticeship model of training new business people. This article describes how the supervised apprenticeships can provide marketable technical and business management skills and vital support networks for microenterprises at low cost. The enterprise support networks fostered by this approach are a critical factor for successful self-employment. The social networks established during training link prospective entrepreneurs with the labour, capital, customers, suppliers, and counselling needed to sustain their future enterprises.
In a climate of growing poverty, many Russians are turning to self-employment to raise their incomes. This article described two examples of attempts by the Russian Federal Employment Service to encourage self-employment: providing workspace for an experienced shoemaker to train apprentices, and working with a commercial enterprise to provide franchising for retail outlets.
Vocational training in developing countries is now at least as much about enterprise development and self-employment as it is about its traditional role of preparation for employment. There is, however, little evidence that the hard-earned lessons of enterprise development are being effectively incorporated into the process of vocational training reform. This article presents an approach to supporting the enterprise transformation within vocational training for self-employment. Key influences are identified, and particular attention is given to the growing body of enterprise development best practice. These elements are used to formulate a 'Conceptual framework for vocational training for self-employment'. This regards the training process as being in three stages- selection, training and self-employment-each of which should be orientated towards enterprise formation: selecting only those with potential for self-employment, conducting training as far as possible in the workplace, and stimulating enterprise networks to support new startups. All of these principles have implications in terms of cost, relevance and equity and these are discussed in a table of 'Planning and assessment guidelines'.