contractors. However, there are examples of services which are provided by the poor to the poor which are both affordable and appropriate, and it is important that these activities are not ignored when
modernization programmes are introduced. This article discusses one such service – the waste collection service by street sweepers in Karachi. Sweepers provide an affordable service to various income
groups including slum dwellers. The poor get double benefits: as service recipients and as service providers. This article proposes how such work could be recognized by and integrated into the future strategies
of public–private partnerships.