In the 1980s, as conservatives rose to power in the West, foreign aid turned to structural adjustment programmes. Under IMF and World Bank pressure, many nations liberalized their economies. In Mali, this was a radical change from the state-led economic policies of the 1960s. Then, the government created state enterprises and made conditions difficult for private merchants. These policies were popular with members of the élite, and their opposition to economic liberalization in the 1980s might have been expected. However, young members of the élite now show strong support for private enterprise. This does not necessarily translate into support for cuts in social services or raises in prices for staple goods. It demonstrates, however, that in addition to demands for economic change from donor nations, there was substantial popular demand for a greater role for private enterprise in the economy.