Chain coordinators and their role in selected food supply chains: Lessons from Pakistan, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom
The main objective of this article is to identify chain coordinators from the selected food chains (dairy, meat, fruits, and vegetables) of small and medium-sized enterprises. The specific competencies of the coordinators were explored - their roles and the nature of chains' coordination - using in-depth interviews with key informants in the UK, New Zealand, and Pakistan. The results show that chief executive officers in medium-sized companies and managing directors/owners in small businesses are strategic coordinators; operations coordinators also handle activities at operational level. The effectiveness of chain coordination and relationships is a function of these chain coordinators' innate or acquired abilities, available tangible resources, and their actual efforts to effectively utilize the resources for all coordination activities. Furthermore, an integrated chain system that supports small farmers is essential to achieve successful coordination. Two-way information sharing and advance payments to the farmers also assist in achieving coordination objectives and effective production.