The 'Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions in Peru' initiative model is a strongly market-driven approach, which advocates moving from viewing the poor as 'beneficiaries' to viewing them as 'customers'. While 'beneficiaries' have needs to be fulfilled by either the state or the municipality, with little concern for their visions and preferences, 'customers' have the right to choose among different alternatives; they are responsible for good decision-making and have the power to shape supply, bringing about new suppliers, thereby improving the sanitation status. This new approach to sanitation in Peru faces some important challenges; it implies a change of paradigm. Also, there is the challenge of maintaining the interest of the private sector when it takes time for consumers' attitudes and behaviour to change. It is too early to point to results; however this approach could be a good opportunity to find new ways to reach sustainable and high-quality sanitation services based on social inclusion, equality and solidarity.