Application of Burke-Litwin model for capacity assessment of city corporations for sanitation services in Bangladesh
Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in reducing the prevalence of open defecation to almost zero, from as high as 34 per cent in 1990. However, significant disparity exists in sanitation coverage, with relatively low coverage and poor quality sanitation in poor communities. In addition, poor management of faecal sludge is leading to serious environmental degradation and is becoming a major public health concern. Local government institutions (LGIs) (i.e. city corporations and municipalities) are responsible for sanitation services in urban areas. In this study, the Burke-Litwin model of organizational capacity has been used for capacity assessment of three city corporations (Dhaka North, Chattogram, and Rangpur) in Bangladesh with regard to sanitation. Analysis based on the model clearly identified a number of ‘external’ factors such as existing rules and regulations, public opinion, political commitment, and role of support organizations that have very strong influence on the attitude and performance of the city corporations. The analysis also identified a number of ‘internal’ factors (e.g. leadership, organization culture, structure, management practice, individual skills and motivation) affecting organizational capacity and performance. Currently all three city corporations studied have very limited capacity in sanitation/pro-poor sanitation planning, investment, and management. Based on the analysis, a number of recommendations aimed at improving capacities of the city corporations in addressing inclusive sanitation planning, investment, and management are made. Lessons learned from this study could be useful in assessing and improving sanitation service delivery by LGIs in cities and towns in Bangladesh and elsewhere.