Pit latrines are the most common form of on-site sanitation, but are blighted by the problem of pit fill-up. Little is known about what factors and conditions affect decomposition of pit content and thus govern pit filling, but the liquid–mass balance is the key factor. Under laboratory conditions the effect of inorganic and biological additives and the effect of physical chemical factors on solids hydrolysis of black water and human faeces were investigated to establish the potential of these to extend pit latrine lifetime. Additives did little or nothing to enhance net solids hydrolysis in batch tests or to reduce pit fill height in miniature simulated pit latrines. Physical chemical factors such as redox condition and initial pH increased solids hydrolysis, whereas temperature and substrate moisture did little. Since additives need contact with the substrate to act, measurements on faeces crust formation speed and strength were performed and showed that crusts formed within three hours and persisted after covering with fresh faeces or water.
The Bishesta campaign: a menstrual hygiene management intervention for people with intellectual impairments and their carers
This paper describes the components of the Bishesta campaign: a behaviour change intervention for menstrual hygiene management (MHM), targeting young people with intellectual impairments, and their carers in Nepal. The campaign uses two fictitious characters: Bishesta (a young person with an intellectual impairment) and Perana (her carer), and consists of three group training modules. ‘Period packs’, designed to make MHM behaviours attractive and easy to adopt, are given to the young people. Packs include storage bags, a bin, and stories about Bishesta menstruating and learning to manage as independently as possible, with Perana’s support. Carers receive a calendar to track the young person’s menstrual cycle. A Bishesta doll, with removable clothes, underwear, and a miniature ‘period pack’ is used in training to demonstrate MHM. Evaluation findings show the intervention is feasible at small scale, so further research on how to scale up the intervention in an evidence-based way is required.