Kathryn A. O’Connell
This study examined factors associated with latrine ownership across different formative research studies and the extent to which these may differ among households from the poorest quintiles. Cross-sectional data was collected between 2008 and 2012 from households in rural areas of Tanzania, Indonesia (East Java), and multiple states of India. A framework, SaniFOAM, guided factors theorized to influence latrine ownership. Multivariate analysis was used to build country-specific models predicting latrine ownership. Factors associated with latrine ownership included: satisfaction with the current place of open defecation, perceptions of the adequacy of water and land for latrine ownership, social norms, sanctions and enforcement, and perceived latrine affordability. Emotional, physical and social drivers also showed a significant positive adjusted association with latrine ownership. Apart from one exception, there was no interaction between the behavioural determinants and wealth on latrine ownership. We conclude that understanding the factors which prevent or facilitate the widespread construction of latrines will inform interventions aimed at changing collective behaviour and creating demand for improved sanitation.