Use of a disposable diaper for children’s faeces, a common practice in many developed countries, is likely to become more common in developing countries as well, due to economic growth. According to current standards for safe disposal of children’s faeces, use of disposable diapers is categorized as open defecation in developing countries. With the renewed focus on children’s sanitation in the Post-2015 goals, whether the use of diapers or nappies should be considered unhygienic in all contexts has been questioned. We performed a critical review of the literature with the objectives of determining: 1) what, if any, policies or practices govern disposal of children’s diapers with solid waste; 2) whether disposal of diapers in solid waste was a common practice in developing countries; and 3) whether disposal of diapers with solid waste is a public health concern. We found very little information on policies regarding diaper disposal or how diapers are actually disposed, but did identify several articles that include diapers in studies of the composition and pathogenicity of municipal solid waste. We conclude that despite the potentially important public health consequences of disposal of diapers in the solid waste stream, policies are lacking. There is a paucity of research to inform development of guidelines that reflect the reality of the situation while still safeguarding public health.