Public-private partnerships in Madagascar: Increasing the sustainability of piped water-supply systems in rural towns
Longevity of piped water-supply systems remains an elusive goal in rural Madagascar. In 1999, the local enterprise Sandandrano negotiated the first public-private partnership (PPP) in the Malagasy water-supply sector. Other companies have followed suit and now there are at least 20 piped water systems under private management in the country, collectively providing services to an estimated 120,000 people in rural areas. This paper explores the evolution of the PPP model for the construction and management of piped water systems in rural Madagascar. Three case studies highlight how PPP has proven effective at sustaining service levels in three geographically diverse settings. Four key factors that have contributed to making the PPP model successful are discussed: political will, size and geographic location, latent demand, and donor support. The paper also shares recommendations for replicating the model in large rural towns where the opportunities are greatest, and the cycle of construction, mismanagement, and abandonment of piped water systems is most pervasive.