The Gezira irrigation scheme in Sudan is one of the largest in Africa and contains over 1,200 unregistered and illegal villages that are home to immigrant agricultural workers. The majority have no source of clean domestic water supply, frequently relying on nearby irrigation water for all their needs. Over 50 per cent of the population are infected with schistosomiasis and other water-borne diseases. This paper examines the problems in one such village, Taweel, and suggests options for improving the supply. After discussing the physical and institutional environment governing water supply, the paper reviews the status of other water supply schemes in the area. It shows that many are in a poor condition because of lack of funding, insufficient staff and poor consideration of operation and maintenance. A review of possible water supply options suggests three possible solutions: a pipeline from a borehole in a nearby village; simple treatment of the irrigation water flowing through the village; and the construction of an infiltration gallery in a nearby main irrigation canal. The paper concludes that there is insufficient information available to make a final decision on the best option but the proposals can form the foundation for further data collection and stakeholder consultation.